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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| July-September  | Volume 52 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 13, 2015

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Assessment of precipitating factors of breakthrough seizures in epileptic patients
Manal Al-Kattan, Lamia Afifi, Reham Shamloul, Emad El Din Mostafa
July-September 2015, 52(3):165-171
Background The prevalence of breakthrough seizures is estimated to occur in 39-75.3% of epileptic patients in developing countries. Patients and physicians should be aware of the possible precipitating factors of breakthrough seizures to prevent their occurrence. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the precipitating factors for breakthrough seizures in patients attending Cairo University Hospital. Methods This cross-sectional study included 90 epileptic patients with idiopathic epilepsy receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). They were divided into two groups. Group I included 55 epileptic patients with a history of recent breakthrough seizures. Group II included 35 epileptic patients who had not experienced any recent breakthrough seizures. Patients with breakthrough seizures were subjected to a thorough questionnaire addressing precipitating factors. All participants were subjected to an electroencephalogram (EEG) and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Results Missed doses (56.4%) represented the most frequent reported precipitating factor, followed by sleep deprivation (36.4%) and psychological stress (34.5%). The patients in group I were found to have lower durations of seizure control, adherence to AEDs, and were more frequently on AED polytherapy than the participants in group II. In terms of the EEG, group I showed a higher percentage of abnormal EEGs and more frequent focal epileptiform discharges. No significant difference was found in age or sex, age at onset of epilepsy, duration of disease, and type of seizures between both groups. Conclusion Patients and their caregivers should be educated about these possible precipitating factors to achieve better control of epilepsy.
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Quantitative EEG in autistic children
Hala Elhabashy, Omnia Raafat, Lamia Afifi, Hebatallah Raafat, Khaled Abdullah
July-September 2015, 52(3):176-182
Background Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized mainly by difficulties in social interaction and communication. Studies have suggested abnormal neural connectivity patterns in the brains of patients with autism. Objective The current work aimed to study the quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) findings in autistic children and compare it with those of normal controls. Methods The EEG recordings of 21 autistic children between 4 and 12 years of age were compared with those of 21 age-matched and sex-matched controls under an eyes-opened condition. Differences in cerebral functioning were examined using measurements of absolute and relative power and intrahemispheric and interhemispheric coherence. Results There were statistically significant differences in EEG power between the autistic and control groups, with greater absolute of delta and theta power especially at the frontal region in autistic children. There was also global reduction in relative alpha and beta power especially in the frontal, central, and posterior regions in autistic children. In addition, there was a pattern of underconnectivity and overconnectivity when measuring the intrahemispheric and interhemispheric coherence in the autistic compared with the control group. Conclusion These results suggested regional dysfunction of the brain in autistic children, along with a pattern of abnormal neural connectivity, which could explain the autistic symptomatology.
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Efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus biofeedback training on bladder and erectile dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury
Wael S Shendy, Moataz M El Semary, Kadrya H Battecha, Mohamed S Abdel-Azim, Husam S Mourad, Amira M El Gohary
July-September 2015, 52(3):194-200
Background Spinal cord injury is associated with urinary and erectile dysfunction. Objective This study compared the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) with pelvic floor biofeedback (PFBFB) training in the treatment of bladder and erectile dysfunction for male patients with traumatic partial spinal cord injury. Methods The study included 30 male patients with bladder and erectile dysfunction (precipitancy overactive bladder) after traumatic partial spinal cord injury above the level of T12 within 6-18 months after injury. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups: the study group was subjected to TENS and pelvic floor exercises and the control group was subjected to PFBFB training in addition the exercises. Patients were assessed before and after treatment by means of cystometric measurements, electromyography activity of pelvic-floor muscles, and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) Questionnaire. Results Before treatment, there was no significant difference in cystometric measurements, pelvic-floor muscle strength, and IIEF-5 score. In the TENS group, the treatment produced significant improvement in bladder volume at first desire to void (P = 0.001), maximum bladder capacity (P = 0.001) and maximum flow rate (P = 0.001), detrusor pressure at maximum flow (P = 0.002), strength of pelvic floor muscles (P = 0.001), and IIEF-5 score (P = 0.001). PFBFB training resulted in significant improvement only in the maximum flow rate (P = 0.042). Conclusion TENS of pelvic floor muscles is a promising, safe, effective, and inexpensive physical therapy technique to improve urinary and erectile dysfunction in patients with partial suprasacral spinal cord injuries.
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The influence of physical therapy on oropharyngeal dysphagia in acute stroke patients
Mohamed S El-Tamawy, Moshera H Darwish, Hatem S El-Azizi, Ahmed M Abdelalim, Shereen I Taha
July-September 2015, 52(3):201-205
Background Dysphagia occurs in 65% of acute stroke patients, resulting in airway obstruction, malnutrition, and chest infection. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a designed physical therapy program that consists of therapeutic physical exercises in addition to neuromuscular electrical stimulation on severe swallowing disorders (oropharyngeal dysphagia) in acute ischemic cerebrovascular stroke patients. Methods Thirty stroke patients suffering from severe dysphagia were assigned randomly to two equal groups: the study group (G1) and the control group (G2). The patients in the study group (G1) received medical treatment in addition to a designed physical therapy program mainly directed at strengthening and stimulating the elevator muscles of the larynx above and below the hyoid bone, whereas the patients in the control group (G2) were under medical treatment only. Digital fluoroscopy was used to assess the following variables: oral transit time, laryngeal elevation, hyoid elevation, esophageal sphincter opening, and aspiration or penetration. Assessment was carried out before and at the end of treatment after 6 weeks. Results Before treatment, there were no significant differences in different variables between G1 and G2. After treatment there was significant improvement in all variables in G1 compared with G2, as measured by digital fluoroscopy. Conclusion The suggested physical therapy program could be an effective and safe method for improving and restoring the normal swallowing mechanism in ischemic stroke patients suffering from severe dysphagia.
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Carpal tunnel syndrome among other referral diagnoses in the Egyptian Clinical Neurophysiology Unit
Ann A Abdel Kader, Mye A Basheer, Eman A Maher, Saly H Elkholy
July-September 2015, 52(3):183-187
Background Nerve conduction (NC) studies and electromyography (EMG) are invaluable tools in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders. Databases with plenty of observations are useful in better assessment and safe and effective decision making. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze data provided by the EMG and NC records and to correlate referral diagnoses, especially carpal tunnel syndrome, with the final electrodiagnostic ones. This will offer strategic clues to minimize time, cost, and human errors. Methods The study was carried out in the Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University. Tabulation of EMG/NC details for the cases examined during the study period (first half of the year 2014), followed by extensive analysis of the data provided, was carried out. Results Most of the referral clinical diagnoses were of carpal tunnel syndrome (44%) and the least were of ulnar entrapment (1.3%). Concordance between referrals and final diagnoses was found only in 59.2% of patients. The most concordant referral was facial palsy and the most nonconcordant referral diagnosis was anal dysfunction. Conclusion Because of the occurrence of the referral diagnoses and the percentage of concordance between provisional and electrodiagnostic diagnoses, the unit is launching a local project for standardized guidelines for every provisional diagnosis.
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Neurophysiological and psychometric evaluation of cognition in the normal aging population
Ann A Abdel Kader, Ebtesam M Fahmy, Ayatallah F Ahmed, Omneya R Ameen, Amira A Labib, Alshaimaa S Khalil
July-September 2015, 52(3):188-193
Background Assessment of cognitive function in normal aging has been considered as an important issue nowadays. There is a generalized proportional decline in mental processing speed among elderly adults that affects all elements of mentation equally. Objective The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functions in normal elderly individuals using psychometric cognitive assessment scales and electrophysiological studies including late cortical responses, P300 and contingent negative variation (CNV). Methods Thirty-five healthy elderly individuals of both sexes were included. Their ages ranged from 60 to 75 years. The participants were subjected to thorough clinical assessment, cognitive evaluation using psychometric scales and neurophysiological tests in the form of P300 and CNV. Results The results of P300 showed a significant positive correlation between reaction time and age. A significant negative correlation was found between reaction time and performance on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) (P = 0.03). The mean amplitude of P300 wave recorded from the parietal region was significantly greater in male participants than in female participants. As regards the results of CNV, a significant negative correlation was noted between N2 latency and the verbal scale of WIS. Comparison of the mean CNV parameters between male and female participants showed that the mean latency of P2 wave was significantly higher in the male population compared with the female population. No significant correlation was revealed between P300 and CNV parameters and scores of Wechsler Memory Scale subtests and parameters of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion Results suggest that the psychiatric scales do not provide a substitute for electrophysiological tests in evaluating the cognitive changes that occur with normal aging. However, there was a limitation for the study in detecting changes because of the narrow age range of the cases.
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Postaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm: a review of the incidence of radiographic and clinical vasospasm
Ahmed M Ali Mahmoud
July-September 2015, 52(3):172-175
Background Vasospasm following ruptured intracranial aneurysms has always been a challenging condition to treat. Objective The aim of this study was to correlate between clinical and radiographic vasospasms after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to point out the other important causes of neurological deterioration. Methods This is a retrospective study conducted on 25 consecutive patients between June 2013 and February 2014 who presented with SAH. Altogether there were 18 male and seven female patients with ages ranging from 42 to 65 years. All patients underwent initial four-vessel or computed tomography (CT) angiography. All patients were treated by direct surgical clipping and all of them were operated upon 48-72 h from admission. All patients were assessed clinically and radiologically by CT scan and conventional angiography or CT angiography at day 10 of postbleeding. Results Out of 25 cases with aneurysmal SAH, 20 developed radiographic vasospasm, with only 11 cases developing clinical vasospasm. Conclusion The incidence of radiographic (angiographic) vasospasm was 80%, with only 55% of cases developing clinical vasospasm. Proper evaluation with laboratory tests and neuroimaging should be carried out in all cases to detect the actual cause of neurological deterioration and to start the proper treatment.
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Muscle response of anticholinesterase-intoxicated rats to different therapeutic modalities
Abd-Elrahman M Elnaggar, Omayma A Khorshid, Amira A Labib, Inas A Harb
July-September 2015, 52(3):206-211
Background Organophosphorus (OP) compound poisoning is a common, serious health problem that results in more than 250 000 deaths yearly worldwide, according to WHO estimates. Traditional use of atropine and oxime has failed to reduce the attendant morbidity and mortality. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of magnesium sulfate and intravenous lipid emulsions versus the traditional standard of care - atropine and oxime - on butyrylcholineesterase enzyme (BuChE) activity and find whether there is a correlation between the enzyme level and muscle activity. Methods Adult female rats were used to study intermediate syndrome and a sublethal toxic dose of dimethoate (60 mg/kg) was used for induction of OP toxicity. Assessment of BuChE level, evaluation of De Bleecker score for muscle activity, and repetitive nerve stimulation test were carried out in all groups. Results The mean BuChE serum level was significantly reduced in the OP-intoxicated group compared with the normal control group. Significant improvement was recorded in the groups treated with oxime and intralipid emulsion. The De Bleecker scale showed elevated scores in all treated groups, and the best result was with oxime and magnesium sulfate. Regarding electrophysiological findings, the most frequently found were repetitive firing after single nerve stimulation and decrement response after repetitive nerve stimulation. Conclusion This study highlighted possible new trends that could prove beneficial in the management of OP poisoning and in improving the degree of muscle weakness and its impact on respiratory muscles.
  - 1,874 172
Postoperative visual field outcome measured by perimetry in sellar and parasellar tumors
Ahmed M Ali Mahmoud, Shaymaa H Salah
July-September 2015, 52(3):212-215
Background Compressive optic neuropathy at chiasm may lead to different degrees of visual acuity affection, color vision loss, and visual field (VF) changes in both eyes. Objective This study evaluates the predictive value of VF outcome 3 months after treatment of chiasmal and parachiasmal tumor compressing the anterior visual pathways. Methods Fifteen patients (eight women and seven men) were included in this study; their ages ranged from 30 to 57 years. All patients were operated upon at the Kasr El-Aini Neurosurgical Department. All of them underwent an evaluation of their history, a clinical examination, standard automated perimetry, evaluation of their hormonal profile, and radiological investigations. Ten patients were operated upon by means of the microscopic-assisted endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach, and the remaining five patients were operated upon transcranially. Results Best-corrected visual acuity showed significant improvement from 0.464 ± 0.367 to 0.16 ± 0.17 LogMAR (P = 0.009) in all patients after surgery. Mean deviation showed improvement in all patients, which was not statistically significant, from −11.289 ± 9.952 dB before surgery to −8.578 ± 7.651 dB at 3 months after surgery (P = 0.330). As regards temporal VF sensitivity, group 1 showed significant improvement in temporal field sensitivity, from 88.054 to 237.967 1/Lambert (l/L), whereas group 2 showed significant worsening in temporal sensitivity, from 198.272 to 100.764 (l/L), and group 3 showed improvement in temporal sensitivity from 702.97 to 820.568 (l/L). Conclusion In this series, temporal field sensitivity was the best prognostic factor for determining the VF outcome in decompression surgery for sellar and parasellar tumors.
  - 1,349 196
Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis subtypes
Dina A Zamzam, Ayman A Gaafar, Ahmed T Ismail, Ahmed Elbassiouny, Mohamed A Tork, Haytham Hamdy
July-September 2015, 52(3):216-221
Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising tool for detecting subclinical changes in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular volume in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of retinal changes in different MS subtypes with and without optic neuritis (ON) with clinical disability, duration of illness, and MRI results. Methods Twenty-four patients with relapsing-remitting subtype and 12 patients with secondary progressive subtype, of age range 16-55 years, with and without ON, and 16 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study; in total, there were 15 male and 37 female participants. Patients were subjected to history, clinical evaluation, Extended Disability Status Score for disease severity, MRI brain with contrast, and OCT to assess the RNFL and macular volume of the optic nerve. The control group underwent OCT. Results RNFL thinning was highly correlated in both subtypes with and without ON in all field quadrants compared with the healthy controls. In addition, retinal and macular thickness inversely correlated with Extended Disability Status Score and disease duration in the progressive group than in the relapsing-remitting type. MRI with contrast inversely correlated with both macular and RNFL thickness in the progressive type. Conclusion Retinal axonal loss is more prominent in advanced stages of disease with proportionally greater thinning in eyes previously affected by clinically evident ON. In the absence of clinically evident ON, OCT is a promising potential biomarker of retinal pathology in MS subtypes.
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