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Efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus biofeedback training on bladder and erectile dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury
Wael S Shendy, Moataz M El Semary, Kadrya H Battecha, Mohamed S Abdel-Azim, Husam S Mourad, Amira M El Gohary
July-September 2015, 52(3):194-200
Background Spinal cord injury is associated with urinary and erectile dysfunction. Objective This study compared the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) with pelvic floor biofeedback (PFBFB) training in the treatment of bladder and erectile dysfunction for male patients with traumatic partial spinal cord injury. Methods The study included 30 male patients with bladder and erectile dysfunction (precipitancy overactive bladder) after traumatic partial spinal cord injury above the level of T12 within 6-18 months after injury. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups: the study group was subjected to TENS and pelvic floor exercises and the control group was subjected to PFBFB training in addition the exercises. Patients were assessed before and after treatment by means of cystometric measurements, electromyography activity of pelvic-floor muscles, and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) Questionnaire. Results Before treatment, there was no significant difference in cystometric measurements, pelvic-floor muscle strength, and IIEF-5 score. In the TENS group, the treatment produced significant improvement in bladder volume at first desire to void (P = 0.001), maximum bladder capacity (P = 0.001) and maximum flow rate (P = 0.001), detrusor pressure at maximum flow (P = 0.002), strength of pelvic floor muscles (P = 0.001), and IIEF-5 score (P = 0.001). PFBFB training resulted in significant improvement only in the maximum flow rate (P = 0.042). Conclusion TENS of pelvic floor muscles is a promising, safe, effective, and inexpensive physical therapy technique to improve urinary and erectile dysfunction in patients with partial suprasacral spinal cord injuries.
  16,731 783 8
Cortisol level in depressed patients and its relation with suicidal risk and anhedonia
Samia Ahmed, Fatma Moussa, Akmal Moustafa, Doaa R Ayoub
October-December 2016, 53(4):193-199
Context In recent times, there has been an increased interest in research related to anhedonia. Nevertheless, its linkage to major depressive disorders and underlying neurobiology are still not well understood. High levels of cortisol are associated with an increased risk for suicide as evidenced by several studies; however, others have not found this association between cortisol levels and suicidality. Aim The aim of this work was to examine whether there is an increased activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in major depressive disorder patients and to detect the presence of an association between the level of cortisol and thoughts of death and anhedonia in at-risk patients with major depressive disorder. Settings and design This case–control study that was conducted on 20 patients with major depressive disorder, diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision, in comparison with 20 controls. Patients and methods All patients were assessed using the Present State Examination 10th revision of the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, Snaith Hamilton Pleasure Scale, Beck’s Suicidal Ideation Scale, and Beck’s Depressive Inventory. Blood samples were collected to assess plasma cortisol level in the morning and evening. Statistical analysis Statistical calculations were carried out using SPSS, version 15. Results There were increased levels of morning and evening cortisol in major depressive disorder patients. Thoughts of death were positively associated with elevated morning cortisol in depression. Anhedonia was associated with higher evening cortisol level in depressed patients in the studied sample. Conclusion There are relatively increased levels of morning and evening cortisol in major depressive disorder patients in comparison with controls; thoughts of death are positively associated with elevated morning and evening cortisol level.
  12,985 2,077 5
Visual dysfunction and neurological disability in multiple sclerosis patients in correlation with the retinal nerve fiber layer and the ganglion cell layer using optical coherence tomography
Said A Gomaa, Mohamed B Badawy, Amr M Elfatatry, Amr A Elhennawy
October-December 2016, 53(4):200-205
Aim The aim of this study was to measure retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) complex thickness with Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT) in Egyptian multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and to correlate the OCT findings with the visual functions and neurological conditions. Patients and methods This study design was a cross-sectional one. A total of 40 eyes of 22 MS patients diagnosed according to the McDonald criteria were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were as follows: optic neuritis less than 6 months ago; best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) less than 0.5; intraocular pressure more than 21 mmHg; cup-to-disc ratio more than 0.5; myopia more than 5 D; and eyes with other ocular or central nervous system diseases. All patients were subjected to the following: full history taking; complete ophthalmic examination, including visual functions (BCVA, color vision, and contrast sensitivity), intraocular pressure, and anterior and posterior segment examination; ophthalmic investigations using the Cirrus OCT (peripapillary RNFL thickness and macular GCL complex thickness); and complete neurological examination containing Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Results There were statistically significant negative correlations (which is mostly still thickened or biased with BCVA selection) between BCVA and the GCL complex of the superior areas among the studied patients. There were statistically significant negative correlations between color total errors and the GCL complex of the inferior temporal areas among the studied patients. No statistically significant correlations between contrast or EDSS and the GCL complex of any area were found among the studied patients. Conclusion GCL complex thickness is correlated better compared with RNFL thickness in MS patients with their visual functions (mainly color vision with the inferior temporal area of the GCL complex), and visual function is better correlated with them than with neurological disability measured using EDSS.
  8,999 833 2
Correlation between median nerve conduction studies and ultrasonography in cases of carpal tunnel syndrome
Hala R El-Habashy, Reem A El-Hadidy, Sandra M Ahmed, Basma B El Sayed, Aya S Ahmed
October-December 2016, 53(4):206-210
Background Nerve conduction studies (NCS) have long been the only objective measure used to confirm the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), localize median nerve abnormalities, and exclude alternative diagnosis. Ultrasonography (US) can give information about the contents of carpal tunnel (CT) as well as aid in assessing the size of the median nerve (MN). Aim The aim of this study was to detect the relation between median NCS and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the MN measured using US in different grades of CTS. Patients and methods This study was a case–control, age-group matched, cross-sectional one. It included 60 wrists of 30 patients diagnosed with CTS and 60 wrists from 30 controls. Candidates were subjected to clinical assessment, median NCS, and measurement of CSA using US. Results There was a significant positive correlation between CSA of the MN at CT inlet and both motor and sensory responses latencies (r=0.638, P<0.001 and r=0.629, P<0.001, respectively). There was a significant negative correlation of CSA of the MN with sensory and motor amplitudes (r=−0.656, P<0.001 and r=−0.657, P<0.001, respectively). Median nerve CSA at CT inlet in the patients’ group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.0001). CSA at CT inlet in early CTS was 13.27±1.56 mm2; 15.13±1.97 mm2 in mild, 16.47±4.16 mm2 in moderate, and 21.43±3.96 mm2 in severe CTS. Conclusion US is highly correlated to NCS results in CTS. CSA of the MN at CT inlet measured using ultrasonography can be used as a screening tool for detection as well as discrimination of severe cases of CTS.
  8,460 813 1
Importance of early recognition of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like disorders in the Egyptian population
Heba Raafat, Radwa M Azmy, Reham Shamloul, Amr El Deeb
October-December 2016, 53(4):219-224
Background Early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like syndrome when only one limb is affected can be missed by physicians suggesting other unrelated disorders especially with evidenced concomitant pathology of the same limb, leading to diagnostic pitfalls and unnecessary procedures. Objective The aim of this study was to support the diagnosis of early stages of ALS-like disorders in clinically suspected patients by electrophysiological studies (EDX) including segments that may be clinically unaffected, and searching for the possible etiology. Patients and methods This study was conducted on 120 adult patients with unilateral limb symptoms associated with irrelevant imaging abnormalities. Diagnostic workup included history taking, general and neurological examination, and EDX using the El Escorial diagnostic criteria. Further investigations included laboratory studies and paraneoplastic and hormonal assays. Results Motor nerve conduction studies revealed reduced amplitude of compound muscle action potential in 62.5% of patients, borderline conduction velocities, normal distal latencies, conduction block in one case, and normal sensory nerve conduction studies. Electromyography of the cranial, cervical, lumbosacral, and dorsal segments showed acute denervation in 80% of patients and chronic denervation in all segments in 35% and in three body segments in 65% of patients. Laboratory investigations revealed 50.83% of patients with chronic hepatitis C, with significant statistical association between EDX and laboratory results, 30.83% with hyperthyroidism, 8.33% with paraneoplastic syndrome, one case with multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block, one case with myasthenia gravis, and 8.3% with negative results. Conclusion ALS-like disorder should be investigated whenever ALS is suspected, and further laboratory workup might unveil a coexisting ‘possibly causative’ pathological condition.
  8,455 744 -
Assessment of precipitating factors of breakthrough seizures in epileptic patients
Manal Al-Kattan, Lamia Afifi, Reham Shamloul, Emad El Din Mostafa
July-September 2015, 52(3):165-171
Background The prevalence of breakthrough seizures is estimated to occur in 39-75.3% of epileptic patients in developing countries. Patients and physicians should be aware of the possible precipitating factors of breakthrough seizures to prevent their occurrence. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the precipitating factors for breakthrough seizures in patients attending Cairo University Hospital. Methods This cross-sectional study included 90 epileptic patients with idiopathic epilepsy receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). They were divided into two groups. Group I included 55 epileptic patients with a history of recent breakthrough seizures. Group II included 35 epileptic patients who had not experienced any recent breakthrough seizures. Patients with breakthrough seizures were subjected to a thorough questionnaire addressing precipitating factors. All participants were subjected to an electroencephalogram (EEG) and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Results Missed doses (56.4%) represented the most frequent reported precipitating factor, followed by sleep deprivation (36.4%) and psychological stress (34.5%). The patients in group I were found to have lower durations of seizure control, adherence to AEDs, and were more frequently on AED polytherapy than the participants in group II. In terms of the EEG, group I showed a higher percentage of abnormal EEGs and more frequent focal epileptiform discharges. No significant difference was found in age or sex, age at onset of epilepsy, duration of disease, and type of seizures between both groups. Conclusion Patients and their caregivers should be educated about these possible precipitating factors to achieve better control of epilepsy.
  7,772 630 11
Correlation between clinical neuropathy scores and nerve conduction studies in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy
Lamia Afifi, Ahmed M Abdelalim, Amal S Ashour, Aussan Al-Athwari
October-December 2016, 53(4):248-252
Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) represents one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between clinical neuropathy scores and nerve conduction studies (NCS). Patients and methods This study included 30 (12 men and 18 women) Egyptian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complaining of symptoms suggestive of DPN. All patients underwent a clinical evaluation using three clinical scores: the Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS), the Neuropathy Impairment Score in the Lower Limbs (NIS-LLs), and the Diabetic Neuropathy Examination (DNE) score. Neurophysiological studies using NCS as well as measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were carried out. Results HbA1C was significantly correlated with NDS, NIS-LL, and DNE. The NDS was statistically correlated to median nerve sensory amplitude, sensory conduction velocity; ulnar nerve sensory amplitude, sensory conduction, motor amplitude, motor conduction velocity; and peroneal nerve sensory amplitude, sensory conduction velocity, motor amplitude, and motor conduction velocity. NIS-LL was significantly correlated with median nerve sensory amplitude, sensory conduction velocity; motor amplitude, motor conduction velocity; ulnar nerve sensory amplitude, sensory conduction velocity, motor conduction velocity; and peroneal nerve sensory amplitude, sensory conduction velocity, motor amplitude, and motor conduction velocity. DNE was significantly correlated with median nerve sensory amplitude, sensory conduction velocity, motor amplitude, motor conduction velocity; ulnar nerve sensory amplitude, sensory conduction velocity, motor amplitude, motor conduction velocity; and peroneal nerve sensory amplitude, sensory conduction velocity, motor amplitude, and motor conduction velocity. Conclusion Clinical neuropathy scores represent a simple tool for evaluation and follow-up of patients with DPN in comparison with NCS, and we recommend the use of these scores in clinical practice on a routine basis.
  7,541 834 2
The influence of physical therapy on oropharyngeal dysphagia in acute stroke patients
Mohamed S El-Tamawy, Moshera H Darwish, Hatem S El-Azizi, Ahmed M Abdelalim, Shereen I Taha
July-September 2015, 52(3):201-205
Background Dysphagia occurs in 65% of acute stroke patients, resulting in airway obstruction, malnutrition, and chest infection. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a designed physical therapy program that consists of therapeutic physical exercises in addition to neuromuscular electrical stimulation on severe swallowing disorders (oropharyngeal dysphagia) in acute ischemic cerebrovascular stroke patients. Methods Thirty stroke patients suffering from severe dysphagia were assigned randomly to two equal groups: the study group (G1) and the control group (G2). The patients in the study group (G1) received medical treatment in addition to a designed physical therapy program mainly directed at strengthening and stimulating the elevator muscles of the larynx above and below the hyoid bone, whereas the patients in the control group (G2) were under medical treatment only. Digital fluoroscopy was used to assess the following variables: oral transit time, laryngeal elevation, hyoid elevation, esophageal sphincter opening, and aspiration or penetration. Assessment was carried out before and at the end of treatment after 6 weeks. Results Before treatment, there were no significant differences in different variables between G1 and G2. After treatment there was significant improvement in all variables in G1 compared with G2, as measured by digital fluoroscopy. Conclusion The suggested physical therapy program could be an effective and safe method for improving and restoring the normal swallowing mechanism in ischemic stroke patients suffering from severe dysphagia.
  7,407 839 7
Carotid artery stenting in high-risk patients: a single-center experience
Mohamed K Elewa
October-December 2016, 53(4):211-218
Background Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a valid alternative to carotid endarterectomy in selected patients. Periprocedural risk of complications is the main determinant for CAS validity. Certain patients’ features may increase the risk of complication. Purpose To assess the management and outcome of the CAS in high-risk patient population. Patients and methods Clinical, treatment, and outcome variables of consecutive high-risk CAS candidates between January 2011 and June 2016 in one center were analyzed. Results Among 29 patients, 21 patients had successful CAS, and only one (3.45%) patient had minor periprocedural stroke. In total, six (20.69%) patients were shifted to carotid endarterectomy, and two (6.90%) patients were managed with medical treatment. Regression analysis showed that bovine arch was independent predictor of CAS infeasibility (P=0.006). The mean follow-up duration was 21.38±15 months. Follow-up duration passed uneventfully. Conclusion CAS in high-risk patients appears to be technically safe. The adverse outcome in high-risk patients is low and accepted. The morbidity and mortality is avoidable with better patient selection and the avoidance of aggressive manipulation whenever possible. CAS should be avoided in patients with certain anatomic risk factors such as type III arch and bovine arch.
  7,017 787 -
Lumbar puncture as a single modality for treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension during pregnancy
Ehab Mohamed Eissa, Lamiaa Ibrahim Daker, Mona Mohamed Shaban, Mohamed I Hegazy
January-March 2016, 53(1):33-36
Background Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is seen typically in obese women in their child-bearing age, management of patients with IIH during pregnancy can be problematic. Objective The purpose of this study is to assess spinal tapping as a single modality for treatment of IIH during pregnancy. Patients and methods This was a prospective case series of seven pregnant women with IIH who underwent full neurological and ophthalmological evaluation including perimetry and neuroimaging studies. They were followed up and treated using only spinal tapping. Results Spinal tapping either single or multiple sessions can control IIH safely during pregnancy with a success rate of 86%. Conclusion Spinal tapping is recommended as a single treatment modality in pregnant women with IIH.
  7,048 355 3
Attitude of medical students toward mentally ill patients: impact of a clinical psychiatric round
MA Alaa El-Din, Ghada R Amen, Reem H ElGhamry, Dalia A.M. Mahmoud, Hagar H.A.H. Kandel
January-March 2016, 53(1):6-11
Background Stereotyped cognitive schemes are the main cause of casting out patients with mental illness. Educational psychiatry programs have to be re-evaluated as medical students often have misconceptions about psychiatry. Objective The aim of the present study was to examine the attitude of fifth-year medical students toward psychiatric patients and disorders, and to reveal the influence of psychiatric study experience on their attitudes. Participants and methods In this interventional study, 300 fifth-year students from Ain Shams University Medical School were enrolled. Sociodemographic data sheet, Fahmy and El Sherbiny's Social Classification Scale, and the Mental Illness Clinician Attitude Scale-2 were used on the first and last day of a 3-week clinical psychiatric round. Results Data before and after the round were compared and showed no significant change in Mental Illness Clinician Attitude Scale-2 scores among the studied sample after the psychiatric round. Only 4% of the students chose psychiatry as a future career with neutral attitude and had worse attitude after rotation. Students who had significant positive attitude at the beginning of the round ended up with a significantly more negative attitude, whereas those with significantly negative attitudes improved at the end of the round. Conclusion Three weeks may not be sufficient time to allow students to follow up the patients to notice their improvement as regards treatment and return to their functional baseline. Thus, students perceived mentally ill patients being untreatable. Greater emphasis on doctor-patient relationship and exposure to patients with psychiatric illness, which responds rapidly to treatment and students taking direct patient responsibility, may lead to the production of more favorable attitudes.
  6,388 555 8
Helicobacter pylori infection in women with nonmenstrual migraine without aura: A case-control study
Hassan M Elnady, Al-Amir B Mohamed, Ashraf Khodearya, Mahmoud Saif-Al Islam
July-September 2016, 53(3):151-155
Background In the last two decades the relation between chronic Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and migraine has been studied, but the results of these studies are controversial. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether current or previous exposure to HP infection is a risk factor in women with nonmenstrual migraine (NMM) without aura, a concise subgroup in which environmental factors are dominant. Patients and methods A total of 24 women, with ages ranging from 19 to 60 years, affected by NMM without aura were evaluated in comparison with 24 control women, with ages ranging from 20 to 59 years, without any history of primary headache. In both cases and controls HP infection was evaluated by detection of HP antibodies in serum and HP antigen in stool. Results The prevalence of HP infection was nonsignificantly higher in the migraineurs without aura compared with controls (P = 0.24 and 0.33). Regarding the intensity, duration, and frequency of attacks of migraine no differences were detected between the two groups. Conclusion Our findings do not support HP infection to be a risk factor for NMM without aura.
  6,294 288 -
Admission leukocytosis, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in acute noncardioembolic cerebral ischemia: influence on early outcome
Magdy A Mostafa, Mohamed K Elewa, Nevine Ahmed Mohamed
October-December 2015, 52(4):223-227
Background There is growing evidence regarding the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, especially nonembolic types of ischemic stroke. Despite this, there is a need to investigate the direct impact of inflammatory markers on the early outcome in nonembolic ischemic stroke. Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether positive inflammatory markers such as raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocytosis could be used as biochemical predictors for poor early outcome in patients with acute noncardioembolic ischemic stroke. Patients and methods A total of 60 patients(40 men and 20 women; median age: 64.5 years) with first attack of noncardioembolic ischemic stroke were included in the study. Full clinical assessment and routine laboratory investigation were conducted for all patients. MRI of brain, ECG, and cardiac echo were carried out to confirm the diagnosis and exclude cases with embolic stroke. Blood samples for all patients within the first 24 h of onset of symptoms were taken for assessment of ESR, qualitative CRP, and leukocyte count on admission. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was used for all patients after 7 days. On the basis of their scores patients were divided into two groups: 40 patients with favorable outcome were included in the first group and 20 patients with bad outcome in the second group. Results There was significant difference between the two groups regarding ESR value, and the leukocyte count was higher in the group with bad prognosis. In addition, positive CRP was associated more with the same group in statistically significant way. Conclusion Inflammatory markers play an important role in detecting the early outcome of noncardioembolic stroke.
  5,232 1,221 3
A study on serum levels of testosterone and prolactin hormones in male epileptic adolescents
Mohamed Osman Rabie, El-Sayed Ali Tag El-din, Khaled H Rashed, Wafik S Bahnasy, Hesham A El-Serogy
April-June 2016, 53(2):79-83
Background Testosterone and prolactin hormone abnormalities have been noticed in some epileptic patients and were attributed to either the direct effect of the disease or the effect of antiepileptic drug therapy. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential endocrinal dysfunction in nonmedicated male adolescents with idiopathic generalized epilepsy as well as those on valproate treatment. Patients and methods This study was performed on 40 epileptic patients, 20 newly diagnosed nonmedicated and 20 treated with valproate, who attended the epilepsy clinic in the Department of Neuropsychiatry, Tanta University Hospital. Twenty age-matched male healthy controls were also included. Patients were subjected to full history taking, neurological examination, evaluation of testosterone and prolactin blood levels, and electroencephalography. Results The serum levels of both free and total testosterone were higher in valproate-treated patients compared with nonmedicated patients and healthy controls. The levels were significantly lower in the nonmedicated group compared with the control group. The serum level of prolactin in both patient groups was significantly higher when compared with the healthy control group, with no statistically significant difference between the two patient groups. Conclusion The exact etiology of hormonal abnormalities in men with epilepsy appears to be multifactorial, including the disease and antiepileptic drug effects. Neuroendocrine regulation in men with epilepsy may be important not only for reproductive function but also for optimal management of seizure disorders.
  6,031 318 3
Knowledge and attitude towards stroke among workers in Cairo University Hospitals
Hatem S Shehata, Sandra M Ahmed, Ahmed M Abdelalim, Naglaa El Sherbiny
January-March 2016, 53(1):54-59
Background Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Poor knowledge of stroke risk factors, symptoms and appropriate response to stroke are possible causes of poor outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude towards different aspects of stroke in a sample of Cairo University Hospitals' workers. Patients and methods A structured self-administered questionnaire was administered by 111 workers who were classified into clinical workers (physicians, house officers, nurses, laboratory technician and pharmacists) and nonclinical workers (administrative, sanitary and security workers). Results Out of 111 participants, 92 completed the questionnaire. Most participants had heard of stroke (91.3%), mostly through encountering a family member with a stroke rather than through mass media (10.9%). Hypertension was the most common identified stroke risk factor (66.3%). Clinical workers were more likely to identify risk factors. The most common identified stroke symptoms were slurring of speech (38.5%) and elevated blood pressure (38.5%). Clinical workers were more likely to identify symptoms such as slurring of speech (P = 0.042) and altered state of consciousness (P < 0.001). The most frequent response to an attack of stroke was transferring the patients to a hospital (59.8%). Conclusion Knowledge and perception of stroke in Cairo University Hospitals' workers appear to be poor, especially among nonclinical workers. Planning educational programs for raising the level of knowledge and awareness of stroke, both on the level of hospital workers and on the public level, is important to improve stroke management and outcome.
  5,590 636 3
Quantitative EEG in autistic children
Hala Elhabashy, Omnia Raafat, Lamia Afifi, Hebatallah Raafat, Khaled Abdullah
July-September 2015, 52(3):176-182
Background Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized mainly by difficulties in social interaction and communication. Studies have suggested abnormal neural connectivity patterns in the brains of patients with autism. Objective The current work aimed to study the quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) findings in autistic children and compare it with those of normal controls. Methods The EEG recordings of 21 autistic children between 4 and 12 years of age were compared with those of 21 age-matched and sex-matched controls under an eyes-opened condition. Differences in cerebral functioning were examined using measurements of absolute and relative power and intrahemispheric and interhemispheric coherence. Results There were statistically significant differences in EEG power between the autistic and control groups, with greater absolute of delta and theta power especially at the frontal region in autistic children. There was also global reduction in relative alpha and beta power especially in the frontal, central, and posterior regions in autistic children. In addition, there was a pattern of underconnectivity and overconnectivity when measuring the intrahemispheric and interhemispheric coherence in the autistic compared with the control group. Conclusion These results suggested regional dysfunction of the brain in autistic children, along with a pattern of abnormal neural connectivity, which could explain the autistic symptomatology.
  5,596 565 20
Transcutaneous nerve stimulation versus aerobic exercise in diabetic neuropathy
Zahra M. H. Serry, Gehan Mossa, Hala Elhabashy, Soad Elsayed, Reem Elhadidy, Radwa M Azmy, Ahmed Mokhtar
April-June 2016, 53(2):124-129
Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes, which is frequently associated with pain. Studies targeting the painful DPN are necessary to support clinical decision-making. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) versus aerobic exercise, and to compare them with regular pharmacological therapy in patients with DPN, using sensory nerve conduction study and the visual analogue scale (VAS). Patients and methods This study included 60 diabetic patients with a history of DPN for 5 years. Patients were divided into three equal groups, all receiving regular pharmacological therapy. Group A received TENS of both lower limbs, three times per week. Group B received aerobic exercise. Group C received only pharmacological therapy. Patients were assessed before and 8 weeks after treatment. The VAS was used to measure the pain intensity before and after treatment, and the medial plantar nerve conduction velocity (NCV) to assess nerve function. Results Group A and B only showed a significant statistical difference between pretreatment and post-treatment pain intensity on VAS, with 41.67 and 16.67% improvement on the VAS, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in pretreatment and post-treatment as regards the medial plantar NCV in any of the groups. Conclusion TENS, of moderate intensity, carried out at 14 Hz, with a pulse width of 250 ms, for 30 min and three times a week is more efficient than aerobic exercise training program in relieving pain in patients with DPN, whereas neither TENS nor exercise showed any significant effect on medial plantar conduction velocity (CV) in patients with DPN.
  5,507 580 7
Migraine comorbidity in patients with multiple sclerosis
Lobna M El-Nabil, Ghada Ashraf, Khaled O Abdulghani, Ayman Nasef, Mohammad Ossama Abdulghani
October-December 2015, 52(4):264-269
Background Migraine headache is a common feature in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, with variable prevalence among studies. It can influence the diagnosis, radiological evaluation, treatment, and quality of life of these patients. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the frequency and severity of migraine in a sample of Egyptian patients with MS and to study the clinical and radiological characteristics in those patients. Patients and methods We studied 55 patients with MS. They were subjected to full clinical and neurological assessment, including the diagnosis of migraine. Migraine diagnosis was made using a questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Neurological impairment was evaluated with the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale; migraine severity evaluation was made using the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale. MRI of the brain and spinal cord was also performed. Results Migraine headache was present in 19 (34.5%) patients. Our results indicate that the majority of patients with coexisting migraine and MS develop migraine years earlier. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with migraine and those without with respect to the age at onset of MS, duration of illness, annual relapse rate, Expanded Disability Status Scale, and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale. However, midbrain periaqueductal affection in MRI was more prevalent among MS patients with migraine. Conclusion Migraine is comorbid in patients with MS. The exact etiology and pathogenesis of these two seemingly disparate disorders has not been completely understood.
  5,072 375 3
Polysomnography and antidiuretic hormone secretion pattern in children with primary nocturnal enuresis
Hanan M Hamed, Amany M Abd Al-Aziz, Ayat A Motawie, Amany A. A. Fatouh, Mona A. M. Awad, Lamia Afifi
October-December 2015, 52(4):258-263
Background Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is one of the most common pediatric sleep-related problems. Data on sleep patterns in children with NE are conflicting. Objective We aimed at studying the sleep architecture, associated breathing problems, and its relation to antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in children with primary NE. Patients and methods This study included 31 children aged 6-18 years with primary monosymptomatic NE and 16 healthy matched controls. They were subjected to a single overnight polysomnography and assessment of ADH levels at 9-11 a.m. and 9-11 p.m. Results Enuretic children had significantly prolonged sleep latency and higher stage N1 percentage, less total sleep time, lower sleep efficiency, and lower rapid eye movement sleep percentage compared with the control group. Ten (32.2%) NE children had nocturnal arrhythmia, whereas six (19.35%) had a respiratory distress index more than 5. Reversed ADH secretion pattern was present in 82% of the NE children. Children with reversed ADH secretion had lower stage N1 and respiratory distress index, and higher sleep efficiency, compared with NE children with normal ADH rhythm. Conclusion Primary NE is associated with disturbed sleep architecture. NE could be a presenting symptom for hidden sleep disordered breathing. The association of NE with cardiac arrhythmia is an interesting finding that requires further research. Most NE children have a reversed pattern of ADH secretion.
  4,960 346 3
Frequency and determinants of subclinical neuropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus
Yosria A Al-Taweel, Rasha M Fahmi, Nahed Shehta, Tamer S Elserafy, Hala M Allam, Ahmed F Elsaid
October-December 2016, 53(4):232-237
Background Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes. We hypothesized that uncontrolled diabetes is associated with subclinical diabetic neuropathy that is influenced by duration of disease. Assessment of the prevalence and associated determining factors will be important for the prevention and treatment of neuropathy. Objective This aim of this study was to assess the frequency and determining factors of subclinical peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetic (T1DM) patients. Patients and methods The current hospital-based, case–control study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals. It included three age-matched and sex-matched groups. Each group comprised 30 participants: group A included diabetic patients with a duration of T1DM of 5 years or less; group B included patients with a duration of T1DM of more than 5 years; and the control group included normal healthy individuals. Clinical assessment was carried out to exclude symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Laboratory investigations including fasting and 2-h postprandial blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, liver function, kidney function, and nerve conduction studies were carried out for every participant. Results The frequency of subclinical neuropathy in group A and group B was 46.6 and 76.6%, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.03). Univariate analysis revealed significantly higher levels of HbA1c, dyslipidemia, and nerve conduction parameters in group B compared with group A and the control group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that duration of diabetes (P=0.02) and HbA1c (P=0.02) were the only independent factors associated with subclinical neuropathy. Conclusion The high frequency of subclinical neuropathy in diabetic patients highlights the importance of nerve conduction studies for the early detection of neuropathy in T1DM.
  4,764 424 5
A comparative clinical study of the characteristics of patients with posterior and anterior circulation ischemic strokes
Mohammed El-Sherif, Ahmed Esmael, Ayman A Elazzouny
April-June 2016, 53(2):65-69
Background Anterior circulation infarction (ACI) accounts for almost 70% of all strokes, whereas posterior circulation infarction (PCI) accounts for 20% of the strokes, with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical characteristics of ACI with PCI, and to detect the diagnostic importance of specific symptoms and signs for PCI. Patients and methods We prospectively analyzed acute ischemic cerebral stroke (AICS) patients, enrolled in the study from the convalescence and critical cases of Mansoura University Hospitals (CCCB-MUH) during a 1-year period. Patients were analyzed for ischemic stroke subtypes (ACI and PCI), demographic data, risk factors, and clinical characteristics. All patients underwent an assessment by using the Glasgow Coma Scale and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at the onset of AICS. Results The study included 234 patients with AICS (174 belonging to the ACI subtype; 60 to the PCI subtype). PCI patients were often men, had a higher presence of cervical spondylosis, lower mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and a lower mean Glasgow Coma Scale. PCI patients had a greater frequency of diabetes and smoking. Among the PCI patients, ataxia, vertigo, unsteadiness, nystagmus, crossed motor, and sensory deficits were statistically significant compared with the ACI patients. As regards speech disturbances, aphasia occurred in a low percentage of the PCI patients, and no statistically significant difference regarding dysarthria was found in the two groups. The neurological deficits favoring the diagnosis of PCI were nystagmus, crossed motor and sensory deficits, ataxia, vertigo, unsteadiness, diplopia, Horner's syndrome, and oculomotor nerve palsy. Conclusion There is an apparent difference in the frequency of the most common manifestations between PCI and ACI patients. Some neurological deficits were highly specific for diagnosing PCI.
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Effects of vitamin D deficiency on the relapse, severity, and disability of multiple sclerosis
Ahmed Esmael, Mohammed El-Sherif, Ayman A Elazzouny
July-September 2016, 53(3):174-178
Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a long-standing inflammatory disease of the white matter and affects more than two million people worldwide. Upcoming evidence proposed that 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25HVD3) deficiency could be one of the most crucial environmental elements for the pathogenesis of MS. Objective The aim of this study was to compare 25HVD3 levels in MS patients and controls and to detect the association with relapse, severity, and disability in MS patients. Patients and methods Mansoura Neurology Department data sheet was collected and all patients were assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at the onset. 25HVD3 levels in the blood were evaluated for all patients and controls using the chemiluminescent immunoassay test. Results A total of 50 MS patients were included in this work and matched with 25 controls. There was a statistically significantly lower mean serum 25HVD3 level in MS patients in comparison with the controls (20.5 ± 16.8 and 42.9 ± 17.9 ng/ml, respectively; P = 0.002). In addition, there was a statistically significantly lower level of 25HVD3 (18.4 ± 17.7) in severe cases of MS (EDSS ≥ 6; P < 0.05) with certain significant clinical features such as older age (P < 0.001) and longer disease duration (P < 0.001). The incidence of 25HVD3 deficiency (<20 ng/ml) in MS patients was 60%. Conclusion Our results showed that there is an inverse correlation between 25HVD3 level and EDSS score. In addition, lower 25HVD3 levels are associated with increased relapse risk in MS.
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Value of seizure semiology and ictal source analysis in lateralizing and localizing the epileptic zone
Khaled O Abdulghani, Ahmad A Gaber, Azza A Abdulaziz, Heba H Afeefy, Taha K Alloush, Amira A Zaki, Mohammad Ossama Abdulghani
October-December 2015, 52(4):243-248
Background Sophisticated analysis of seizure semiology and electroencephalography (EEG) has a significant role in lateralizing and localizing the epileptogenic zone. Hence, understanding the pathophysiology of epileptogenic dysrhythmia requires thorough knowledge of how to put the very different pieces of the puzzle together. Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the concordance between seizure semiology, electrophysiological generator, anatomical lesions, and neuropsychological evaluation in patients with partial epilepsy, and to identify the importance of ictal EEG recording and the diagnostic yield of other electrophysiological techniques. Patients and methods Thirty patients with a diagnosis of intractable partial epilepsy and lesional MRI were prospectively included. All of them were clinically evaluated and identified according to semiological seizure classification. Long-term video digital EEG with ictal recording was done, along with a source analysis (SA) study. Results Clinical evaluation by seizure semiology lateralized 73% of the cases and localized 80%. Ictal EEG lateralized 80% of cases and localized 66.9%. SA revealed a much superior power to lateralize and localize (96.7%) the epileptogenic zone, but what is more important is the added value of SA, as it lateralized and localized 96-100% of the cases that failed on semiology. SA has the highest expected value for additional lateralizing and localizing information ( ±7.73 and ±7.30, respectively). Conclusion Seizure semiology and ictal EEG recording with SA are the most accurate ways to lateralize and localize the epileptogenic zone in intractable partial epileptic cases, giving the patient a respectable chance to avoid other invasive diagnostic techniques.
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Role of interleukin-6 in refractory epilepsy
Nervana M El-Fayoumy, Hatem A El-Massry, Montasser M Hegazy, Amany H Ragab, Rabab A Mohamed, Sara G Abdel Alim
October-December 2016, 53(4):238-243
Background There is increasing evidence of a complex relationship between epilepsy and the immune system. Objective The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationship between inflammatory cytokines, immune system dysregulation, and the pathogenesis of refractory epilepsy by determining the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with refractory epilepsy and its relation to different factors. Patients and methods This study was conducted on 30 patients with refractory epilepsy and 10 healthy control participants. All patients were assessed using clinical evaluation, conventional digital electroencephalogram, brain MRI, routine laboratory tests, and IL-6 level in serum. Results Serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in patients with refractory epilepsy than in the control group. Conclusion There is a significant association between serum IL-6 level and refractory epilepsy.
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Postaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm: a review of the incidence of radiographic and clinical vasospasm
Ahmed M Ali Mahmoud
July-September 2015, 52(3):172-175
Background Vasospasm following ruptured intracranial aneurysms has always been a challenging condition to treat. Objective The aim of this study was to correlate between clinical and radiographic vasospasms after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to point out the other important causes of neurological deterioration. Methods This is a retrospective study conducted on 25 consecutive patients between June 2013 and February 2014 who presented with SAH. Altogether there were 18 male and seven female patients with ages ranging from 42 to 65 years. All patients underwent initial four-vessel or computed tomography (CT) angiography. All patients were treated by direct surgical clipping and all of them were operated upon 48-72 h from admission. All patients were assessed clinically and radiologically by CT scan and conventional angiography or CT angiography at day 10 of postbleeding. Results Out of 25 cases with aneurysmal SAH, 20 developed radiographic vasospasm, with only 11 cases developing clinical vasospasm. Conclusion The incidence of radiographic (angiographic) vasospasm was 80%, with only 55% of cases developing clinical vasospasm. Proper evaluation with laboratory tests and neuroimaging should be carried out in all cases to detect the actual cause of neurological deterioration and to start the proper treatment.
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